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Transactional Analysis
Human Resources » Employee Relations

Chrm Message From: barkhadoshi Total Posts: 46 Join Date: 17/08/2006
Rank: Executive Post Date: 18/11/2006 02:42:59 Points: 230 Location: United States

I would like to know if anybody has some material on interpretation of Transactional Analysis scores or if you all can direct me for the specific concept.

Barkha Doshi

Chrm Message From: Jim Watson Total Posts: 27 Join Date: 17/08/2006  
Rank: Executive Post Date: 18/11/2006 02:48:33 Points: 135 Location: United States

Transactional analysis is a social psychology developed by Eric Berne. Over the past four decades Eric Berne's theory has evolved to include applications to psychotherapy, counseling, education, and organizational development.

Transactional analysis is a powerful tool to bring about human well being. In psychotherapy, transactional analysis utilizes a contract for specific changes desired by the client and involves the "Adult" in both the client and the clinician to sort out behaviors, emotions and thoughts that prevent the development of full human potential. Transactional analysts intervene as they work with clients in a safe, protective, mutually respectful-OK/OK--- environment to eliminate dysfunctional behaviors and establish and reinforce positive relationship styles and healthy functioning. Transactional analysts are able to use the many tools of psychotherapy, ranging from psychodynamic to cognitive behavioral methods in effective and potent ways. Examples of transactional analysis psychotherapy can bee seen in our Master Therapists series, the Ellyn Bader and Peter Pearson Couples Therapy Videotapes and the Carlo Moiso-Isabelle Crespelle DVD

Counselors who utilize transactional analysis work contractually on solving "here and now" problems. Counseling work focuses on creating productive problem solving behaviors. Using transactional analysis, counselor's establish an egalitarian, safe and mutually respectful working relationship with their clients. This working relationship provides tools clients can utilize in their day-to-day functions to improve the quality of their lives.

Educators who work with transactional analysis teach the simple concepts of basic transactional analysis to empower and enable students by providing them with concepts and tools to understand themselves and each other. Students, whether at elementary or post-graduate levels, learn more effective methods of interaction and mutual recognition. By using the basic theory of transactional analysis, educators work to create a common understanding of personality and functioning that reaches across all fields of learning and unifies the educational experience.

Transactional Analysis is a powerful tool in the hands of organizational development specialists. Through presenting the basic concepts of transactional analysis and using it as the basic theory to undergird the objectives of their clients, organizational development specialists build a common strategy with which to address the particular needs of organizations and to build a functional relationship, as well as eliminate dysfunctional organizational behaviors.

I'm sure this will help to understand the concept.


Jim Watson

Chrm Message From: ayeshaa Total Posts: 36 Join Date: 17/08/2006  
Rank: Executive Post Date: 19/11/2006 23:23:27 Points: 180 Location: United States

Barkha, Transactional analysis is a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change.

As personality theory, transactional analysis gives us a picture of how people are structured psychologically using the three-part ego-state model. Transactional analysis also provides a theory of communication that can be extended to analyze systems and organizations.


Chrm Message From: mohanty_bm Total Posts: 34 Join Date: 17/08/2006  
Rank: Executive Post Date: 04/06/2008 01:35:20 Points: 170 Location: United States

Hi Barkha,

Transactional analysis offers a theory of child development. The concept of life script explains how our present life patterns originated in childhood. Transactional analysis develops explanations of how we may continue to replay childhood strategies in grown-up life, even when these produce results that are self-defeating or painful. Thus transactional analysis also provides a theory of psychopathology.

In the area of applications, transactional analysis offers a system of psychotherapy that can be used with individuals, groups, couples, and families to treat all types of psychological disorders, from everyday living problems to severe psychosis. It is also used in educational settings to help teachers and learners stay in clear communication and avoid setting up unproductive confrontation, in management and communications training and in organizational analysis, and by social workers, police and probation authorities, and ministers of religion. In fact, transactional analysis can be used in any field in which there is a need for understanding individuals, relationships, and communication.

Key Ideas in Transactional Analysis

1. Ego State Model (PAC Model): An ego state is a set of related behaviors, thoughts, and feelings, a way in which we manifest a part of our personality at a given time. Transactional analysis portrays three ego states: Adult (behaving, thinking, feeling in response to what is going on around me in the here and now), Parent (behaving, thinking, feeling in ways that are a copy of one of my parents or other parent figures), and Child (behaving, thinking, feeling that I used when I was a child). When we use the ego-state model to understand personality, we are employing structural analysis.

2. Transactions, Strokes, Time Structuring: I can address you from any of my ego states, and you can reply in turn. This exchange is a transaction. The use of the ego-state model to analyze sequences of transactions is transactional analysis proper. When you and I transact, I signal recognition of you and you return that recognition; any act of recognition is a stroke. People need strokes to maintain their psychical and psychological well-being. When people transact in groups or pairs, they use time in various specific ways which can be listed and analyzed; this is the analysis of time structuring.

3. Life Script: Each of us in childhood writes a life story for himself or herself; most of it has been written by the age of seven, although we may revise it further during adolescence. As grown-ups we are usually no longer aware of the life story we have written, yet we are likely to live it out faithfully. This is our life script. In script analysis we understand how people may set up problems for themselves out of awareness and how they may set about solving those problems.

4. Discounting, Redefining, Symbiosis: Sometimes we distort our perception of reality so that it fits our script; this is redefining. One way to ensure that the world seems to fit our script is to selectively ignore information without conscious intention; this is discounting. As grown-ups we may get into relationships without awareness that replay relationships we had as children with parents. When this happens and the two people function as though they had only three ego states between them instead of six, we refer to it as a symbiosis.

5. Rackets, Stamps, and Games: As children we may notice certain feelings are encouraged while others are prohibited. To get our strokes we may decide without conscious awareness to feel only permitted feelings. When as grown-ups we continue to cover our authentic feelings with the feelings that were permitted to us a children, these substitute feelings are known as racket feelings. If we experience a racket feeling and store it up instead of expressing it at the time, we are said to be saving a stamp. A game is a repetitive sequence of transactions in which both parties end up experiencing racket feelings.

6. Autonomy: To realize our full potential we need to update the strategies for dealing with life that we decided upon as infants. We need to move out of script and gain autonomy. The tools of transactional analysis are designed to help people achieve that autonomy, the components of which are awareness, spontaneity, and the capacity for intimacy.

The Philosophy of Transactional Analysis

The philosophical assumptions of transactional analysis are:
• People are OK.
• Everyone has the capacity to think.
• People decide their own destiny, and these decisions can be changed.

From these assumptions follow two basic principles of transactional analysis practice:
(1) The contractual method :Emphasizes that the transactional analysis practitioner and the client take joint responsibility for achieving whatever change the client wants to make, and

(2) Open communication means that the client as well as the practitioner should have full information about what is going on in their work together.

Author: Ian Stewart & Vann Joines



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