Introduction to Recruitment
Recruitment and selection is the process of identifying the need for a job, defining the requirements of the position and the job holder, advertising the position and choosing the most appropriate person for the job. Retention means ensuring that once the best person has been recruited, they stay with the business and are not “poached” by rival companies.
Undertaking this process is one of the main objectives of management. Indeed, the success of any business depends to a large extent on the quality of its staff. Recruiting employees with the correct skills can add value to a business and recruiting workers at a wage or salary that the business can afford, will reduce costs.
Employees should therefore be carefully selected, managed and retained, just like any other resource
The Recruitment Sources in the recruitment process are the sources of candidates. Generally, the HRM Function recognizes two main sources of candidates for the job positions: internal and external sources of candidates.
The internal recruitment sources are very important, but they cannot be used to fill every vacancy in the organization. It is very important to realize, that in many organization, the internal recruitment is divided into two separate processes: internal recruitment and promotions. The promotion is the move of the employee when the organization initiates the whole process. The real internal recruitment is than a move of the employee initiated by the employee him or herself.
The external recruitment sources bring job candidates from the external environment using different techniques. The oldest, but still pretty efficient is a newspaper job advertisement. Many HRM Professionals do not believe in the power of the newspaper advertising, but for many jobs it is still one of the best techniques with the best cost/income ratio.
The modern recruitment source fully managed by the organization is the web job advertisement. It is very cheap, but it can flood the organization with many useless job resumes. This can make the final decision almost impossible. The cost/income ratio is always attractive, but the success rate can be really low.
The other external recruitment sources are the recruitment agencies and executive search companies. Their services are not cheap, but the organization does not have to handle all that job resumes and the good agency also makes follow ups of the job candidates in the recruitment process.
A very special kind of the recruitment source is the referral recruitment, when the employees are paid to provide the organization with their friends as potential employees. This can look strange, but it can provide the organization with many interesting candidates, who are not reachable via any other recruitment source.
Definition of Recruitment:
“Recruitment Is The Process Of Finding And Attracting Capable Applicants For Employment. The Process Begins When New Recruits Are Sought And Ends When Their Applications Are Submitted. The Result Is A Pool Of Application From Which New Employees Are Selected.”
Meaning Of Recruitment:
Recruitment Is Understood As The Process Of Searching For And Obtaining Applicants For Jobs; From Among Them The Right People Can Be Selected. Though Theoretically Recruitment Process Is Said To End With The Receipt Of Applications, In Practice The Activity Extends To The Screening Of Applications So As To Eliminate Those Who Are Not Qualified For The Job.
Purpose and Importance of Recruitment:
• Determine The Present And Future Requirements In Conjunction With Personnel Planning And Job Analysis Activities
• Increase The Pool Of Job Candidates At Minimum Cost
• Help Increase Success Rate of Selection Process by Reducing Number of Under-Qualified Or Over-Qualified Applications.
• Reduce The Probability That Job Applicants Once Selected Would Leave Shortly
• Meet Legal And Social Obligations
• Identify And Prepare Potential Job Applicants
• Evaluate Effectiveness Of Various Recruitment Techniques And Sources For Job Applicants.
Factors governing recruitment:
A. External Factors:
• Demand and Supply (Specific Skills)
• Unemployment Rate (Area-wise)
• Labor Market Conditions
• Political and Legal Environment (Reservations, Labor laws)
B. Internal Factors
• Recruitment Policy (Internal Hiring or External Hiring?)
• Human Resource Planning (Planning of resources required)
• Size of the Organization (Bigger the size lesser the recruitment problems)
• Growth and Expansion Plans
The Recruitment’s 2 “P”
The recruitment and selection decision is of prime importance as the vehicle for obtaining the best possible person-to-job fit which will, when aggregated, contribute significantly towards the Company's effectiveness. It is also becoming increasingly important, as the Company evolves and changes, that new recruits show a willingness to learn, adaptability and ability to work as part of a team. The Recruitment & Selection procedure should help managers to ensure that these criteria are addressed.
The Company Recruitment and Selection Policy will:
• be fair and consistent;
• be non-discriminatory on the grounds of sex, race, age, religion or disability;
• Conform to statutory regulations and agreed best practice.
• To ensure that these policy aims are achieved, all appointing managers will receive training in effective recruitment and selection.
The following procedure should be used when a post is to be filled. The appointing manager must:
Define the job. If it is an existing post, is an exact replacement required or is this an opportunity to revise the requirements. If it is a newly established post be clear on the exact requirements, draw up a job description and consult the appropriate Director / Human Resources Department in relation to the appropriate grade and salary.
Complete a Job Vacancy Form which confirms:
• details of the post
• final approval from the appropriate Director;
• In the event of the job being newly established, the approval of the Chief Executive, and confirmation from the Director of Finance, that funding is available.
Send the Job Vacancy Form to the Human Resources Department / Company Administration Office. No vacancy can be processed without this authorisation.
Ensure the Job Description and person specification are up-to-date. Contact the Human Resources Department for advice / any assistance in completing these.
Collate an information package appropriate for the post. This package should include:
• job description and if appropriate, the person specification
• information on the department
• information on the Company
• terms and conditions of employment
It is important that this pack is carefully put together in order to present a professional image of the Company, therefore out-of date or poorly presented information is not suitable.
Discuss with the Human Resources Department / Admin Office / appropriate Director the most effective means of obtaining suitable candidates. The following options should be explored (in this order):
• Internal advert within the Company
• Examination of previous applications, or those held on file within the Human Resources Department / Company Administration Office
• External advert within the job centre
• External advert in the local press
• External advert in the National press
• External advert in the appropriate technical / professional Journal
• In senior posts the use of a recruitment agency
Design the advertisement. All advertisements must contain as much information as possible to ensure the correct recruitment group is targeted and reduce unsuitable applications, while remaining as cost-effective as possible.
External adverts will be submitted to the appropriate Director / senior manager for approval before being placed.
• Identify vacancy
• Prepare job description and person specification
• Advertising the vacancy
• Managing the response
• Arrange interviews
• Conducting interview and decision making
The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.
• Less Costly
• Candidates already oriented towards organization
• Organizations have better knowledge about internal candidates
• Employee morale and motivation is enhanced • Old concept of doing things
• It abets raiding
• Candidates current work may be affected
• Politics play greater roles
• Morale problem for those not promoted.
Internal sources of Recruitment:
Present Permanent Employees:
Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher level of jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to external sources, to meet the trade union demands and due to the policy of the organization to motivate the present employees.
Present temporary/casual Employees:
Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on present job.
Retrenched or Retired Employees:
Employees retrenched due to lack of work are given employment by the organization due to obligation, trade union pressure etc. Sometimes they are re-employed by the organization as a token of their loyalty to the organization or to postpone some interpersonal conflicts for promotion.
Dependents of Deceased, Disabled, retired and present employees:
Some organizations function with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members.
Present employees are well aware of the qualifications, attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. As such they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and relatives.
These candidates are directly recruited by the Company from their college/educational institution. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned.
Private Employment Agencies/Consultants:
Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions and can concentrate on operational activities.
Public Employment Exchanges:
The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. As per the Employment Exchange act 1959, makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges.
Professional organizations or associations maintain complete bio-data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm.
The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange, Educational Training Institutes, candidates etc and feed them in the computer. It will become another source and the co can get the particulars as and when required.
Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities, level of unemployment, candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs.
Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The Management can get potential candidates from this source.
Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management.
The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date, time and at a specified place.
The busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Headhunters are also called search consultants.
Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of human resource for the possible employment. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity.
Mergers and Acquisitions:
Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers and take over help in getting human resources. In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on adhoc basis.
The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the worldwide wed (www). The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the Internet.
Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them. These organizations do not utilize the human resources; instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis.
• Benefits of new skills and talents
• Benefits of new experiences
• Compliance with reservation policy becomes easy
• Scope for resentment, jealousies, and heartburn are avoided. • Better morale and motivation associated with internal recruiting is denied
• It is costly method
• Chances of creeping in false positive and false negative errors
• Adjustment of new employees takes longer time.
Techniques of recruitment:
Recruitment techniques are the means or media by which management contacts prospective employees or provide necessary information or exchanges ideas in order to stimulate them to apply for jobs. Management uses different types of techniques to stimulate internal and external candidates.
Techniques of Recruitment are divided into two viz Traditional and Modern:
Traditional Techniques Modern Techniques
Transfers Salary & Perks
Traditional Techniques of Recruitment:
1. Written job application in response to an advertised position - directly to the company.
This is the most common method of recruitment. Many people still seem to think that a written application means a hand written application. If a company does want a handwritten letter they will say so. Go to Letter writing guide and see an example of an advertised position and how to set out a letter. See also advanced information on how to apply for an advertised job at Application Letter - Advertised Job and Job Application Letter - Using Marketing Techniques
2. Written job applications to recruitment / employment agencies
Treat this same as a letter to an employer; however, refer to the employer as “Your client” as they are a second party in this process.
3. Registering with a Job Recruitment / Employment Agencies
Job Recruitment / Employment Agencies are an effective recruitment tool. Agencies advertise a position on behalf of the employer and conduct the interview to short list stage. This could be a pool or the best 3-4 applicants. The employer pays the fee and there is a trial period. Recruitment Agencies do not get full payment until the end of the trial period, so they are very selective and good job references are one of the most important job criteria. This job search strategy requires less work and allows you to access to job opportunities you might not have found on your own.
Recruitment or employment agencies specialize only in recruitment. They generally deal with high demand jobs and often specialize in job areas such as IT, accountancy, Customer Service, Business process outsourcing and administration. The recruitment screening standard is high. Generally Recruitment / Employment Agencies tend to advertise most positions in the newspaper and through internet job boards such as Naukri and Monster. However, if you register personally with these agencies and present well, with clear employment goals, you may be matched to a job through their electronic job vacancy database. This is why it is so important to have an electronically friendly resume, showing key words that don’t get altered in the scanning process.
Once the jobseeker registers with an agency, they can ring the company if they see a job they are interested in, and advise them that they have been interviewed and that their details are on file.
However, recruitment processes vary. Before you decide to register with a specific employment or recruitment agency, phone them first and check their minimum employment requirements. This may be a car license, typing speed, computer knowledge or other specific job criteria. Ask if you can send in your resume. If so, send a cover letter setting out clearly you employment needs and credentials and ask for an interview. The recruitment screening standard is high and your application and resume must also be high.
The disadvantage of this recruitment method is that the agency is working for the employer, and will need to satisfy all their criteria. Nevertheless, Recruitment Consultants who have developed a good rapport with a client may ask an employer to look at a "wildcard' - a person who may not meet all the criteria, but has potential.
4. Registering with a Job Search Firm
These are more exclusive employment agencies at the top end of the market - mainly executive recruitment. As part of their hiring strategy Recruitment Consultants "headhunt" applicants from other firms on behalf of their clients. They often do career transition programmes for retrenched workers on behalf of companies.
5. Labour Hire Companies
Labour hire companies have companies generally meet short to medium term labour hiring needs in the blue collar job categories. Workers are contracted out and labour hire companies pay all insurance etc.
This was once a smaller section of the recruitment market. With the change in Industrial laws and recruitment patterns, business rationalization and cost cutting, plus the range of work these companies receive, they are becoming a more attractive and popular recruitment method and contracts can be ongoing. Some tips for using these agencies:-
Hourly rate will vary as the company takes a proportion -so check around.
You need to fill out an application form and supply good referees. Make sure you take your resume with you to copy from. The agency may also keep your resume on file.
They generally want people with current driver's licences.
They will want your tax number before they can register you.
You must have a valid working visa
job seekers should ensure that the agency covers insurance, and only use reputable companies. Since Industrial law changes some labour hire companies have come under fire regarding workplace legislative requirements. This may change in the future under proposed new government industrial relations initiatives.
6. Temporary Staff Recruitment / Employment Agencies
This should be a popular recruitment method yet many job seekers feel it is too insecure. These agencies can make arrangements to transfer an employee to the company full time if required (at a fee to employer). Often companies use agencies to 'trial employees' as they do not have to deal with Industrial relations issues. Points to consider:-
Many people have been placed in good permanent jobs after proving themselves.
Often the company will make the approach to the agency to employ the temporary staff member full time. It is all about "fitting in" with the company's organisational culture. Usually this arrangement is considered a 'perfect match' for both the employer and employee.
Temporary agencies are very selective in their recruitment. job seekers will have to do a range of work related tests.
job seekers may need to establish themselves and build credibility with an agency to be selected for some of the better positions.
A wise jobseeker would take any assignment and use these placements to build a good employment profile.
Some unemployed people are afraid of the security of accepting temporary assignments. If they have good skills they should not be deterred by going down this path.
7. Group recruitment requiring telephone interviews
This recruitment method is used by employment agencies on behalf of a client and some Government Departments to short list candidates from a large pool. For example , through public service tests, or the opening of a new company and in Government the introduction of a new policy initiative or increase in budget for new substantive positions). Potential employees will be given a time when someone will ring them and they will have to answer a series of questions. The company will generally send an information package showing them what to expect.
Telephone interviewing for group recruitment can often screen out good candidates. Applicants must prepare carefully for these interviews.
The interviewer will have a script so that everyone is asked the same questions. The interviewer will use a ratings matrix and will give the applicant a value, or a mark. This will determine if they have passed the screening process to go on to an interview. The interviewer needs to be very experienced to be able to evaluate answers at the same time as asking questions and may miss a potential match. This is a pretty hard job so the applicant needs to make it easy for the interviewer, or they may be unfairly rated. Answers need to be constructed almost the same as in selection criteria writing using processes used to make a decision.
8. Group recruitment - information sessions
If a company is doing group recruitment they may ask you to attend an information session if you pass the telephone interview. They may do recruitment testing or simply get you to play silly games meant as a recruitment assessment technique.
An arsenal of psychology tests are available for use, the main one is to find out if candidates are team players. If a jobseeker is attending these interview days I recommend reading up on assessment tests such as team building. Many recruitment agencies are staffed by people with psychology degrees, and use these tests as they look impressive and costly and they need to justify their qualifications.
Other recruitment practitioners from the Human Resource Management stream, including academics, do not believe they have much validity It is a much debated topic. You can manipulate these tests as most are visual. Google " psychological testing", "psychometric testing" or recruitment or team building assessment tests, for example.
A very good career assessment tool is Future Proof Your Career Take the test to see your strengths. Find out where you are coming from in a more positive environment. A warning about unscheduled screening calls in response to written applications or phone applications.
9. Telephone or screening interviews
A screening interview may be conducted legitimately by a government agency or a new company who are bulk recruiting as already discussed and you will be advised in advance when this is to take place.
There is another type of screening interview that the jobseeker may not realise is happening. An employer, (and also an employment agency/recruitment firm), may ring the jobseeker to talk or "chat" about their application. This is really telephone interviewing. Consider this as an important screening interview. From this contact you will either be put on a shortlist for a face-to-face interview, or your application will be discarded. So if a company/agency phones you to talk about your application make sure you know what job they are referring to. Don’t be afraid to question them and to ensure you know the job and the requirements. If you are not ready to focus on a screening interview ask if you can call them in 10-15 minutes.
Ensure they know you want to speak to them but you need to refresh your memory. You can say that you have several jobs you have applied for and you want to be able to refresh your memory about their requirements. Look at the job and your application again and ring them back.
10. Applying for jobs requiring selection criteria
If an advertisement states that you should send for the selection criteria you can be confident that it is a Government or Statutory Authority position or an agency funded by the Government. If you have any doubts about your suitably you should ring the contact person to check it out. The package they send out will tell you how to set out and write the application. This is very difficult if you haven’t done it before. It must be done correctly or they will not, and cannot, look at your application not generally advertise this service, we do, however, offer a service to polish up your application.
For comprehensive information on how selection criteria is used see Selection Criteria before you even look at this method. Note: Graduate recruitment comes under this category, and the standard of job applications is getter higher, but could improve.
11. Phone application in response to an advertised position
Generally this recruitment method used by smaller companies. If you are asked to phone (as opposed to submitting a written application) you must do so immediately. You will probably be screened by the receptionist who may take job and personal details. They will tell you that the employer will ring you back. This is a hit and miss method of recruitment and used by many smaller companies and very frustrating for job seekers.
12. Applications by e-mail to recruitment websites or job boards
The two most well known examples of a job bank are Naukri and Monster.
Use the method if the employer requests. In today’s world everyone is afraid of viruses and will delete any messages they cannot recognise. Make sure that the subject line states that it is an advertised position and give the position title. Follow the employer’s directions.
13. Accepting applications from job seekers cold calling
In the past smaller employers were impressed by the applicant who cold called, by visiting the company and leaving their resume. Research confirms a view that has been held for a long time, that job seekers who cold call are considered to be highly motivated with a lot of initiative and confidence and really wanted to work. The extensive use of the internet for looking for work may have changed this view somewhat, and this is because it is not being done correctly.
The attitude to cold calling may change and can be spam if you do not do it correctly. All cold calling letters that come to this office can be classified as spam, albeit they are not filtered by the ISP unless they are using an internet provider with a bad reputation. They are thoughtless, meaningless letters that show how lazy and uninformed the applicant is. They deserve to be ignored and deleted. If you really want to cold call do it properly.
14. Industry/Corporate Websites
A good example is mining companies and larger organizations. Most have vacancies advertised on their site. So do your Market Research
15. Job Network
Many agencies will take private recruitment contracts for higher level positions and you do not need to be registered and receiving benefits to use this service. Job Network generally operates at the mid -lower skill level, although there are some surprisingly good jobs that come, depending on where you live. Refer to Job network and check out your local agency. In the current economic climate the use of these agencies may increase, as they are free to the employer.
16. Employee referral
This method of recruitment occurs more often than you may think and can be a traditional method of employment for many companies. The advantage is that an employee would not recommend someone they know that is not up to the job as it reflects back on them.
This is a very good job finding technique and is usually carried out by most HR professionals. Relevant and sustained relationships over a period of time can help the HR professionals in networking with their colleagues to acquire resources from different fields.
Modern Techniques of Recruitment:
Scouting: Scouting means sending the representation of the organizations to various sources of recruitment with a view to persuading or stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs. The representatives provide information about the company and exchange information and ideas and clarify the doubts of the candidates.
Salary and Perks: Companies stimulate the prospective candidates by offering higher level salary, more perks, quick promotions etc.
ESOP’s: Companies recently started stimulating the employees by offering stock ownership to the employees through their Employees Stock Ownership Programmes (ESOPs)
Innovative Recruitment Practices
Sending of SMS
Eg: Convergys provide individuals an easy option to send their application by simply texting the word “APPLY” to a specific number and in turn receives a reply from the organization to proceed with the application process.
Blogging on Social Networking Sites
Eg: Twitter, Facebook, Multiply, HRLink , CiteHR, Linked in , Orkut
Job Fairs , Job Application Banners, Pamplets, Hoardings, Advertisement in Public transport by using visual and audio aids.
Advertisement through public address system : Radio , Television.
Even though advertising in the media still remains a powerful source in attracting candidates, pioneers in the field say that “the most suitable, qualified and talented candidates aren’t even looking”. So approaching this set of candidates should be done after careful observations and by being attractive and making the candidates want to join your organization for his or her career growth.
Maybe if you can think away from these traditional ways of recruiting and be creative in attracting candidates, you have a wide chance of getting the most suitable candidates. Kevin Wheeler describes these out of the box non- traditional methods.
1. Event Recruiting – Sponsoring events where the candidates you are seeking attend to. By giving a presentation and advertising your company in a way which will attract the candidates and letting them know that your company knows what the participants are looking for, you can bring in the most suitable candidates which you might consider hiring.
2. Re-Recruiting – When you’re most qualified or experienced staff leave the company let them know that they’re welcome back. The reasons they leave maybe for a change of location, a new challenge or higher pay which you can’t afford at the moment. But if they are not satisfied at the new place, they’ll always appreciate the old one. This can also reduce on training cost and time which you might have to spend for a newly hired employee. This of course cannot be applied to all employees.
3. Make Every Employee A Recruiter – This does not mean asking employees to refer their friends and family to the company. This also can be a way of advertising. Equip every employee with a company card stating the company contact details and an attractive “we are always looking out for dynamic individuals…..” This can be very useful when employees know how to effectively hand out these cards to the most eligible individuals.
4. Cast A Wider Net - Expand your recruiting to include some people who do not have all the skills you would like, but who have potential to contribute if they are trained.