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Management : Art or Science ?

Management is everywhere - office, hospital, school, curity, Finance, trust etc., Management is basically Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, Assessing, Correcting, Motivating and Achieving a set goal. It is objective-oriented. We always have a doubt whether it is an art or science. It is the oldest of arts and youngest of science, because it is of dynamic nature.

Different Managements need different approaches; for example Business Management and Personnel Management are based on Common principles but vary a lot in the approach. Economists say Management is a Factor of Production; Socialist views it as a Group of People; others say that is a process; Mary Parker says “ Management in its true sense, a process by which an organization realizes its objectives in a planned manner”; Management is all about great ideas, people and achievements; though there are many definitions of Management no single definition is universally accepted, as it changes from situation to situation, industry to industry; it has got different dimensions and hence cannot be defined precisely as a Scientific Theory or Law; James A. F. says “ Management is the process of Planning, Organizing Leading and Controlling efforts of organization members and of using all other organizational resources to achieve pre-determined Organizational goals”.

Dr. James Lundy’s views : “Management is a task of Planning, Coordinating, Motivating and Controlling the efforts of others towards specific objectives”. According to Henry Fayol, “Management is to forecast, plan, organize, command, coordinate and control". Peter F Drucker defines Management as “An Economic Organ of industrial society”; E.F.L. Breach says “Management is concerned with seeing that the job gets done, its tasks are centered on planning and guiding the operations that are going on in the enterprise”; According to George R Terry “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performance to accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources”.

Management is taking inputs, transforming them into output-either a good or service; the effectiveness of this transforming the input into output depends on the Management - especially when the resources are scarce; It is a group activity; motivating others and getting the things done within the stipulated time, without compromising on the quality of the result; it gives shape and color to the great ideas of the manager; Management involves dealing with people who have different understanding, sensitivity, knowledge, capability, responsibility, maturity.

Science is a collection of systematic knowledge, collection of truths and Inferences after continuous study and experiments. The Relationship between Variables and Limits are defined and the Fundamental Principles discovered.

Science has got three specific characters :
1. It is a systematic and organized knowledge and based on scientific methods of observation.
2. Inferences are arrived after continuous observation and experiemtns;
3. It has logical principles which are well defined and are Universally applicable without any limitations.

Management Principles have also evolved and it is changing day by day according to the change in the human behaviour; In science keeping one factor as Variable and all others as constants the same experiment is repeated many times in order to arrive at a conclusion; but Management involves human element and hence all the factors are wildly varying.

Art uses the known rules and principles and uses the skill, expertise, Wisdom, experience to achieve the desired result. The point is how to get the things done in the desired manner to get the desired result. New methods can be adopted from the past experiences and incidents what to do and what not to do; Effective Management is extracting voluntary cooperation from the staff. So it is definitely an art and it can be acquired only by practicing the theoretical knowledge skillfully and prudently.

Management has got two faces like a coin; on one side it is art and on the other it is science. Management has got scientific principles which constitute the elements of Science and Skill and Talent which are the attributes of Art.

Management skills are acquired by constant practice as in the case of medicine, engineering and accountancy; Mere knowledge of concepts will not fetch results; understanding human behaviour, tactfulness, vision, pragmatism, creativity, compassion towards staff, team spirit are all needed by a Successful Manager for effective management. The Science and Art are not mutually exclusive but complementary to each other. Therefore Management is both a science and an art.

Comments Listing
Posted: 29/09/2015 14:38:47

I like this comment

Posted: 14/10/2014 15:58:47

excellent explanation, helped me in my assignment.

Posted: 01/10/2014 20:09:34

thanks for supporting me academically.

Posted: 29/06/2014 16:08:24

this is helpfull for me,thanks, 100 percent correct.

Posted: 29/07/2013 03:10:42

Quite useful piece of work i appreciate thanks.

Posted: 30/06/2013 20:23:49

Very true and apt.

Posted: 05/06/2013 05:45:02

this is very correct

Posted: 19/05/2013 06:31:21

it is useful for me

Posted: 30/03/2013 23:54:28

Managing the task is a scientific process but managing the team is definitely a Art.

Posted: 23/03/2013 19:45:18

Management is both science & art blcos art is a technique of doing work in a given situation while science does d work on d basis of experiment & observation in sort science teaches d process & art teaches to apply them

Posted: 16/02/2013 20:11:10

To my view and understanding management is both art and science before i used to called science but with a well listening and understanding is both. Firstly let looks at the meaning of management is a strategic planning, coordinating, organising, controling and group of people skillful with the aim of achive certain goal. Now that every body as understand the meaning we can now make our point. Let see management is a scienc, science make good experiment, observaing and investigate how the resources is being manage effectively. With the use of science investigate and observation art will now take it into concideration by practicing and make the use of different human skill inorder to achive their goal. With my little explanation to confiused u reader management is both art and science.

Posted: 07/02/2013 03:01:17

This information as help with my assignment, it is one of the best, i need more

Posted: 05/02/2013 03:32:04

To my acknowledgement management is both an art and science;simpily because we need day to day guidlines,plans and coordination of our future events

Posted: 31/01/2013 09:51:46

I like this type of debate or information.

Posted: 20/01/2013 08:09:18

Ii is very important to management. People. If you read this information you will get information about management. Thank you.

Posted: 16/01/2013 04:29:57

It's very useful information

Posted: 10/01/2013 06:56:13

It is very useful to me

Posted: 05/11/2012 11:28:04

very informative and clearly explained... very nice..

Posted: 15/10/2012 16:32:06

wow the information on this post is very informative. And I like the way it was debated,it helps me to look at the topic from different angles.

Posted: 17/09/2012 11:02:02

its very nice

Posted: 21/08/2012 11:40:29

the information which is provided is just amazing.... i loved the information provided to us.. the language used is amazing... a very nice 1... thanks

Posted: 20/08/2012 01:47:07

i think management is 80% art and 20% science.

Posted: 19/08/2012 23:03:19


Posted: 19/08/2012 23:00:03

management is both science as well as art

Posted: 28/07/2012 23:54:17

thanks for your information

Posted: 25/07/2012 06:10:45

by my understanding i think management is both an art and science cause if you give thought you will find that for a manager to really become good at what he/she does needs to fast understand and study the characteristics of his/her team in terms of behavior and thats an art, that manager will also need to scientifically manage the available resources in presence in one way or another

Posted: 21/07/2012 09:20:40

Thank u guys

Posted: 27/06/2012 03:00:09

our teacher teach us to ans these with my own view so my view is- it is not arts or science it is just management.

Posted: 17/05/2012 01:48:17

Management is not a pure science.It is beheviour & soft science.and it is als0 art and becoming profession.

Posted: 11/05/2012 23:58:14

Management is a art of getting thing by others..or that is a process to manage people skillfully.

Posted: 26/04/2012 00:49:27

managemaent is an art and a science because it's all about management, using of human experienc and also the use of technology. But mostly is an art. Is good.

Posted: 09/04/2012 03:03:42

management is the combination of science and art...

the application of science in management was the use of systematic process like in planning, we do follow or make steps and execute it orderly.

the application of art was the passion and the creativity we exert

Posted: 29/03/2012 01:54:50

great post

Posted: 21/03/2012 07:53:22

management is science because it systematic body of knowledge.
It is an art because it is creative.
thus mamagement is both science or art.

Posted: 14/03/2012 15:29:07

Management can b called an art because d steps to direct,cordinate,and guide d affair of a company undergone art processes,but due 2 techniques apply 2 it 2 make it efficient nd effective dats y its be known as a science.

Posted: 23/02/2012 02:38:27

Its both art and science because by art and science it help business to work well

Posted: 02/12/2011 04:20:05

Really very nicely explained!!
Few ppl are still not being logical and saying it as Only art or considering social science.But I would like to say you all be logical broaden ur view and think as a whole do not only look at managing business ou an organisation it is beyond that. If you think deeply and apply ur wisdom you will realize it isa both Art as well as science.
But now the point is : Whether Doctors or Engineers are Scientist or artist?
If you say a doctor you are an artist he may wonder because he belongs to a medical profession which is a science.But once you start practicing to gain certain skills which they actually do while practicing their profession they become artist.

Posted: 06/11/2011 13:01:33

management is neither science nor art. It is a social science

Posted: 06/11/2011 01:01:48

+923137239520 Please tel me management is art or science i submit asignmen .

Posted: 28/10/2011 15:50:06

Management as an art or science depend on diz dicispline.............

Posted: 28/10/2011 15:43:44

Management being a art nd science is all about dat..............

Posted: 28/10/2011 07:30:51

it is good

Posted: 27/09/2011 02:28:28


Posted: 25/09/2011 06:36:54

management is a systematic body of knowledge, so it is science,
but art is a personal skill or knowledge, practical knowledge.

Posted: 13/09/2011 07:49:18

is both act and science

Posted: 10/09/2011 09:43:52

yup this is true dat management is an art or science.... bt em still confusing... em nt proper satisfy...

Posted: 04/09/2011 14:09:12

In an ideal situation, both would be necessary.
I see most HR Managers, or employees performing well, even if they arenít artists in their field, and thatís most important for a firm.
Some great artists has a lack of skills, and that, artist of not, is catastrophical for a company. Employees leave and no one seems to know why and the answer is then : he/she is great, but has a lack of knowledge, takes decisions and he/she spoils the job.

Posted: 26/08/2011 11:32:16

management is both science and art.
because management is a reserch of ideas.
it is also a result oriented

Posted: 26/08/2011 05:34:48

i also belive management is an art
or a science .............

Posted: 25/08/2011 10:11:03

management is an art as well as a science....

Posted: 24/08/2011 02:36:33

Management is both science as well as an art.
But it is not a pure science like we study in physics,chemistry or biology,it is science because of its practical implication in the organisations.Talking about the art,definetly management needs some skills and knowledge to acomplish or fulfill the desired goals and objectives.Therefore in this context managemant is both science as well as an art.

Posted: 20/08/2011 12:32:51

management is not at all science. It is art and definitely art. It was only FW Taylor who found out mathematical formulae for doubling the production he was branded as father of scientific management. Before him also management existed. Definition of management is getting things done from the people and for this you require man management skills and when skill comes, it is an art. So all you gyus and gals, do not beat around the bush and say it is both. Stand firmly and be counted. SAy it is ONLY ART.

Posted: 18/08/2011 04:00:39

L.urick said "practice wholly divorced from study is likely to be limited in its result as study undisciplineby practice likely to prove sterile and misleading".thus we can say that management is neither only an art,nor only science it is a mixture of the two

Posted: 15/08/2011 12:05:09

Really nice

Posted: 14/08/2011 22:44:17

nice compilation

Posted: 12/08/2011 23:20:57

mngt is art as well as science

Posted: 11/08/2011 03:44:01

Management is an art as well as science because the skills required for managing is a kind an art; whereas the principles on which these skills are used belongs to science. Hence mgmt is a combination of both art as well as science.

Posted: 05/08/2011 23:14:34

management is both science and art

Posted: 03/08/2011 08:32:26

Management is the process of designing, maintaining and environment in which individuals working to gather in a group efficiently accomplish selected aim.

Posted: 31/07/2011 07:51:44


Posted: 26/07/2011 05:42:01

Actualy there are two aspects of Managing
1-practice of management is an art and
2-the Knowledge on which the practice of managing is depends is science.

Posted: 24/07/2011 15:22:08


Posted: 24/07/2011 09:05:52

as management as both the faces i.e art and science it helps the business to work efficiently

Posted: 22/07/2011 11:35:35

it is arts and science

Posted: 19/07/2011 14:18:40

try to make a solid as well as satisfy solution in this topic, still i am not satisfy

Posted: 15/07/2011 23:25:13

Science is the part of a sicvence knowledge. in the science we get the relation of reason & result.

Posted: 15/07/2011 11:58:18

The tool's of management are "science" and the practice of management is "art".

Posted: 05/07/2011 02:36:48

Management is Art ( the oldest of Art) but also Science ( the youngest of Science)

Posted: 03/07/2011 02:29:55

management is an art as well as has two face like a coin .both the face is necessary for making a coin just like art&science both is necessary for the maagement .it gives the idea that how to handel the things and skills and the process in this it follow the rule of arts but on others hand it follow the certain law ,conduct experiment and innovate the new idea in this aspect it is science so from the above we can easily say that management is science as well as arts

Posted: 19/06/2011 22:51:35

according to Dr James Lundy's management is a task of planning,coordinating, motivating, and controlling the effort of other toward specific objectives therefore management is best combination of art and science.

Posted: 13/06/2011 10:44:09

It is very imp. topic .It play a vital roll in our life.Management is really very good combination of Art & Science.

Posted: 06/06/2011 13:31:00

It has been said that management is an art strugging to become a science.

Posted: 27/05/2011 05:10:04

Management is combination of art and science.

Posted: 14/05/2011 22:09:57

management is an arts or science

Posted: 05/05/2011 01:21:34

principles of management changes due to change in human become a good manager we should have sufficient knowledge,understanding,a great personality etc.

Posted: 13/04/2011 12:00:55

why we need unity

Posted: 02/04/2011 12:08:06


Posted: 28/03/2011 08:04:35

mgt is scince according to planing organizing Coordinating directing motivating goal oriented but 2nd think managment is arts becouse mgt is depend on some principle common concepts rule andsome norms
so,my point of view
mgt is depends on best combination of arts and science.

shahnawaz 92

Posted: 18/03/2011 00:19:25

yaa nice article on mgt is a science or an art....

Posted: 16/03/2011 03:05:52

By me management is combination of art and science it science when we strat planning strategy,and evaluation and it is art when it comes to realise the plan, implement and execute.

Posted: 12/03/2011 07:33:22


Posted: 07/03/2011 19:00:14

It is very nice.Can I join in it?

Posted: 14/02/2011 02:29:00

It's mix of Art and Science. Some practice it to become better managers by the art some become by learning it.


Posted: 08/02/2011 10:48:17

ya its both science & art

Posted: 06/02/2011 05:34:30


Posted: 03/02/2011 06:43:33


Posted: 31/01/2011 05:28:35

management is both Because it has some features of SCIENCE and ART.

Posted: 25/01/2011 06:38:04


Posted: 18/01/2011 13:28:48


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