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In every job, some people perform more effectively than others. Superior performers do their jobs differently and possess different characteristics, or "competencies", than average performers do. And the best way to identify the characteristics that predict superior performance is to study the top performers. It may be hereditary but when we get into a job we should have the competency to posses the job, then only the goals to be achieved.
Competency is a much contested concept. Those who use it shape the meaning. Some have stated them, as behaviors for superior performance while others have strongly promoted them, as the minimum required to perform a job to the required standards which is seen as a way to improve the link between training and workplace requirements. There are five type of competency characteristics, Motives: A thing which a person consistently thinks about or his needs and wants which causes action. It varies from person to person, for some person it may be Money and other person it may be Authority. Traits: It is the physical characteristics of a person, traits highly affects a person’s thinking power and decision making power etc. Self Concept: It consists of a person’s attitude, value and self image. The success of the person depends on the attitude which he/she has. Knowledge: It is the information which a person has in a specific area. It can be improved through effort which lay by the person. Skills: The ability of the person to perform certain physical and mental tasks. For performing different tasks different skills are required.
It became popular in the 1970s with the performance based vocational teacher and educational movement in the United States of America. In 1986, the UK started the National Vocational Qualification movement (NVQ). This was followed by the Australian National Training Board, the New Zealand NQ format, the Malaysian National Vocational Council and the Singapore initiatives. David McClelland, in his 1973 ground breaking article in the Harvard Business Review stated that behavioral traits and characteristics are much more effective than aptitude tests in determining who is and who is not successful in job performance.
Competency standards are propelled by a strong political desire to prepare the workforce for the competitive global economy. Competency based education and training gives individuals opportunities to achieve qualifications that relate to required performance in the workplace and consequently satisfies employer needs for a skilled workplace.

The key to achieve a competitive advantage is the ability of the workforce of an organization to maximize the advantage of technology, superior products and steady source of capital to enter in to the market place. A competency model is a description of those competencies possessed by the top performers in a specific job. In effect, a competency model is a "blueprint for outstanding performance" A HR competency model describes the combination of knowledge skill and characteristics needed to effectively perform a role in an organization and is used as a human resources tool for selection, training and development, appraisal and succession planning. Identifying and mapping these competencies are complex tasks. The competency modeling is mainly using in HR for
Selection system: competency model helps the organization to make sure that the Human resources system support and facilitates strategic objectives of the organization. All the interviews consist of same type of questions; this has to be changed; for the selection of efficient person a specific model has to be developed. The efficiency of the human resource determine the capabilities of the organization, talented human resources help the organization to achieve its goals so the competency model has to implement to in hire the human resources, apart from that competency model helps to place the right person at the right job.
Training and development: for a specific job some qualities has to develop. HR competency model help to build the competency of a person to perform a specific job. Competency based training also means that, if assessed as competent individuals do not have to “jump through the training hoop” in order to get recognition. This is also true of the recognition process for formal certified programs from accredited education/training institutions.
Performance management: it clarifies what expected from the individuals. Current performance management systems generally include an interview to plan the expected work outputs of a staff member. However, if the job profile has been written in an “outcomes” format this planning interview becomes more efficient and less arbitrary. Expected outcomes and required competencies (including training needs) are easily identified.
Maximization of Productivity: to maintain same or higher productivity, the employee’s skills and knowledge and characteristics has to be improved. By identifying relevant Skills gaps competency model helps to implement training and development more wisely and effectively. Adapting to Change: competency model provides a tool which helps to identify the skills require to meet the present and future needs. For example; Marketing Manager of Life insurance company are responsible for managing the all the market activities of the company earlier just an Agency building, with increased competition the focus changed to Strategic Marketing, Territory Development, Building teams. The employees hired by the companies must be able to work in a changing and challenging environment.
Competency, essentially human competency is the most critical element for the success of Business. It is well known that employee’s competence and a support organizational structure are essential for any business to realize goals and also to adopt consistent change. In fastest growing world whatever the area it may be the competency has to be improved, the only the organizations can achieve its goals,

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