Competency can be defined as the process of identifying key attributes and skills for each position and process within the company. Competency mapping is of great importance in any organization. Competency mapping plays a vital role in selecting, recruiting and retaining the right people. When the competency required for a particular position is mapped, an accurate job profile is created. With the job profile well defined, the entire recruitment process becomes easier. The candidate who applies for the position is aware of what the position demands. The interviewers who interview the candidate are sure of what to look for in him. This increases the chances of retention as the new employee and the company know what to expect from each other. Too often, ambiguity about the roles desired by the company and the expectations carried by the new employee is a cause of disappointment for both the employee and employer after the employee joins the company. However, competency mapping as an exercise is expensive. In involves investment in terms of time, money and effort. This requires the backing of the top management. Clarity is required in matters of organizational goals and strategies and core competency. There is not a standard competency mapping process that will work in all situations and in all companies. Experts suggest that each company must develop a model that is unique to itself. This model must bear in mind its strategy, customers, goals etc. In spite of the investment involved, a competency mapping exercise that is done well is a great asset for the company. A Human resources Policy that is founded on competency is considered to be the best HR policy. Most of the activities of the HR department such as recruitment, training and appraisal are made more effective and meaningful when they are based on a concrete and comprehensive competency mapping. Once the employee has entered the organization, it is natural for the employee to want to ascend the corporate ladder. As the skills and qualities required for each position in the hierarchy is clearly defined, employees who seek growth are aware of what is expected of them. This enables the employee to align his efforts in the direction of the company’s requirement. It also brings a degree of transparency to the whole process and motivates the employees. Apart from recruiting and promotion, competency mapping is a great development tool for the employee. It assesses the inherent strengths and weakness of the individual and helps him develop himself. It also gives direction to the training machinery within the organization as the training programs will be better suited to meet the employees’ needs.