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OD Intervention
Human Resources » Organization Development

Chrm Message From: chintan Total Posts: 20 Join Date: 20/08/2006
Rank: Executive Post Date: 30/09/2006 02:14:04 Points: 100 Location: United States


Can somebody tell me what are the tools that one can use while doing an OD intervention.



Chrm Message From: sanjay04 Total Posts: 57 Join Date: 20/08/2006  
Rank: Manager Post Date: 30/09/2006 02:20:01 Points: 285 Location: United States

Dear chintan,

Some of the tools effectively used for OD interventions are :-

FIRO Element B
Theory & Theorist: Will Schutz, a pioneer in the human and organization development movement in the 1950s and 60s, asserts that discovering the degree to which you want and exhibit three critical elements of human behavior - Inclusion, Control, and Openness - will give you great insight into your behavior with individuals and groups. The most refined and powerful of the series of FIRO tools on human behavior, the Element B yields useful insights into self- leadership development, team building, and human interaction.

Benefits of the Tool

Easy self-administered and self-scored form.
On-line or paper-and-pencil versions with 48 questions
Available in the public domain
The most current embodiment of Schutz's theory, the work that
underpins the Element B has over 30 years of research and application
behind it.

More About the Tool

This tool, while appearing straightforward, is actually quite sophisticated and can be analyzed on a number of increasingly deep levels. The basic structure involves three elements, Inclusion, Control and Openness. For each element, the instrument provides
feedback on:

Expressed: The degree to which the respondent expresses the behavior, and

Wanted: The degree to which the respondent wants that behavior to be expressed by others with him or her. By analyzing different patterns of the three elements and the two
aspects of each, consultants and managers can gain powerful insights into the way individuals and groups work together and why.

Awareness and feedback in these six areas are first and foremost tools for working in groups. Inclusion, Control and Openness are three critical undercurrents in group formation and development. The three elements represent major issues in the commonly accepted

In addressing these personal and group issues, FIRO Element B feedback and analysis can foretell power struggles, disclosure and trust issues, and inclusion issues. A team, consultant, or manager can diagnose why a group is not producing or why it is experiencing conflict.

Schutz believed that, because of outside variables, the expressed and wanted scores of individuals can also differ from one group to another, or between work and home, although people generally have lasting tendencies.

Applications of FIRO Element B

Allows teams and work groups to predict and diagnose issues causing them to be ineffective.
Provide clues to individuals who are not working effectively together
about what is wrong and how to open up dialogue between them.
Helps leaders understand their relationships with individuals and teams, in particular what messages they are sending to others and why others react as they do.
We've used this long ago.

Another one is
Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument
Theory & Theorist: This tool is rooted in early work of Kenneth Thomas and Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid dating back to 1964. It asserts that all behavior in a conflict situation is comprised of two independent variables: assertiveness and ooperativeness. Knowing how assertive and cooperative any person or group is during a conflict will yield both a conflict style and a road map for the conflict's solution. The model and instrument were created by Kenneth W. Thomas and Ralph H. Kilmann.

Benefits of the Tool:

Quickly self-administered and self-scored form
Support material bound in same booklet with the instrument
Allows administration, feed back and acquisition of a solid understanding of conflict in 90 minutes or less.
Easy to bridge to or combine with other instruments
A thoroughly tested approach which underpins much of the work done on conflict over the last thirty years.
More about the Tool:

This is the only one of the four instruments in OD Tools  where we do not need to use the instrument. But it is available when appropriate. In the workshop we will be learning to use the Thomas Kilmann theory alone or with the instrument.

The matrix of assertiveness and cooperativeness yield five basic styles of conflict: Competing, Collaborating, Compromising, Avoiding, and Accommodating.

Each style is useful and appropriate at times and destructive at others. The theory and tool are used to identify these styles and even provide a road map for conflict management or resolution.

Applications of Thomas-Kilmann Tool

Helps people or groups in conflict to understand how different styles may be affecting the way the conflict is handled.

For teams, provides a framework to analyze conflict, whether they have issues at the moment or whether they just want to understand differing approaches before conflict arises.

For managers, creates a way to frame conflict and identify road maps for solving it.

Gives leaders a sense of what conflict management style they use, and how to manage conflict and differing styles they may encounter in others.

Chrm Message From: johnn Total Posts: 28 Join Date: 20/08/2006  
Rank: Executive Post Date: 02/10/2006 02:51:03 Points: 140 Location: United States

OD interventions in itself are the tools which one uses after the dignostic phase as part of the OD initiatives. Alternatively, you can refer to the book - "Organisational Development" authored by French & Bell". It provides you with insights on the OD related aspects which also includes the interventions. It is a very good read.



Chrm Message From: aladin Total Posts: 38 Join Date: 20/08/2006  
Rank: Executive Post Date: 02/10/2006 03:04:22 Points: 190 Location: United States

Hi Chintan,

Organisational Development Tools are numerous and depend on the following:

1. The stage of OD Intervention
3. The Intervention Level

Let me elaborate:

1. The stage of OD Intervention

This could be any of the following stages:
- Initial Diagnostic Meeting
- Detail Problem Design / Research Design (This is usually the Action Research)
- Hypothesis Formulation
- Data Gathering
- Data Analysis
- Result and Recommendation Presenting
- Action Planning
- Follow Up and Adjustments

All the above steps would warrant the usage of different tools.

2. The Intervention Level

OD interventions can be done at different levels as below:

- Individual Level
- Team Level
- Group Level
- Organisational Level
- Process Interventions
- Strategic Interventions (This is sometimes added as a part of the Organisational Level Interventions

The Personality Inventories and other psychometric instruments are used in OD interventions at the Individual / Team or Group Level. Some others that are used are Fish Bowl, Mirroring, etc. These days Play Back Theatre is emerging as a new tool for intervention. It helps people clarify their communication, motivation etc to the larger group without any threat or emotional danger.

Other tools like Six Sigma, Cross Functional Process Mapping, Automating processes etc are some of the tools used in Process Interventions.

Large Group Meetings - A typical example would be GE Workout, are tools that are used in Strategic or Organisational Level Interventions.

You can find the details of these interventions and the tools used in them in any of the reputed OD Books like French and Bell, Edgar Schein, Fifth Discipline Field Book etc.

At the end of the day, the OD tool is as good as the person using it. The OD Practitioner and the Consultant are the best tools in any intervention.

Chrm Message From: amarjeet Total Posts: 40 Join Date: 20/08/2006  
Rank: Executive Post Date: 02/10/2006 03:15:11 Points: 200 Location: United States

Hello all,

Here is a brief on interventions that OD practitioners choose from in partnering with organizational leaders to create "planned change."

This is, of course, not exhaustive. It only covers the most common OD interventions. Every practitioner augments this list with both specially designed interventions that meet the precise needs of clients and with other, more complex interventions such as large-
group sessions, and other popular programs. It is important, however, that all OD professionals be completely grounded in these basic interventions

Applying criteria to goals
Here the leadership establishes objective criteria for the outputs of the organization's goal-setting processes. Then they hold people accountable not only for stating goals against those criteria but also for producing the desired results.

Establishing inter-unit task forces
These groups can cross both functional parts of the organization (the "silos") as well as employee levels. They are ideally accountable to one person and are appropriately rewarded for completing their assigned task effectively. Then they disband.

Experimentation with alternative arrangements
Today organizations are subject to "management by best-seller." The OD practitioner attempts to get leaders to look for changes that may take 3-5 years to work through. The meta-goal in these interventions is to create what is being called a "learning organization," one that performs experiments on organizational structure and processes,
analyzes the results, and builds on them.

Identifying "key communicators"
The OD professional here carefully determines who seems to be "in the know" within the organization. These people often do not know that they are, in fact, key communicators. This collection of individuals are then fed honest information during critical times, one-on-one and confidentially.

Identifying "fireable offenses"
This intervention deepens the understanding of and commitment to the stated values of the organization. The OD professional facilitates the work of the organization's leaders to answer the critical question, "If we're serious about these values, then what might an
employee do that would be so affrontive to them that he/she would be fired?"

This is actually a set of interventions that leaders plan with OD's help in order to "acculturate" everyone in the organization into an agreed-upon vision, mission, purpose, and values. The interventions might include training, goal setting, organizational survey-feedback, communications planning, etc.

Management/leadership training
Many OD professionals come from a training background. They understand that organizations cannot succeed long term without well- trained leaders. The OD contribution there can be to ensure that the development curriculum emphasizes practical, current situations that need attention within the organization and to monitor the degree to which training delivery is sufficiently participative as to promise adequate transfer of learnings to the job.

Setting up measurement systems
The total-quality movement emphasizes that all work is a part of a process and that measurement is essential for process improvement. The OD professional is equipped with tools and techniques to assist leaders and others to create measurement methods and systems to monitor key success indicators.

Studies of structural causes
"Root-cause analysis" is a time-honored quality-improvement tool, and OD practitioners often use it to assist organizational clients to learn how to get down to the basis causes of problems.

This technology is probably the most powerful way that OD professionals involve very large numbers of people in diagnosing situations that need attention within the organization and to plan and implement improvements. The general method requires developing reliable, valid questionnaires, collecting data from all personnel, analyzing it for trends, and feeding the results back to everyone for action planning.

"Walk-the-talk" assessment
Most organizations have at least some leaders who "say one thing and do another." This intervention, which can be highly threatening, concentrates on measuring the extent to which the people within the organization are behaving with integrity.

Hope this helps, any more views from the esteemed professionals out here since the discussions seem to get interesting each day now..



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